A Story of the Bulgarian Jews
He was born in the Bulgarian capital of Sofia in 1938. After W.W.II, when he was 10, his family immigrated to Jaffa, Israel. He did his military service in Air Force intelligence and paratroopers, and became a journalist and writer of books (including David Ben Gurion'sbiography), as well as a public servant. - Part of the year he spends in the United States, where he is a professor at Emory University and a very busy speaker.It was at Emory in 1993 that he read a New York Times article about the wartime rescue of about 7,200 Jews in Denmark. He wrote to the newspaper about the much bigger rescue in Bulgaria, and, only after much checking, did the newspaper publish it. - The flood of positivereaction to this little known tale, and colleagues at the university, convinced Bar Zohar to write the book.Subject: A True Story Never Told
A great many Jews know the story of how the Danes rescued 8,000 Jews from the Nazis by smuggling them to Sweden in fishing boats. Very few Jews, including me, until yesterday, know the story of how all 50,000 Bulgarian Jews were saved. Not a single Bulgarian Jew was deported to the death camps, due to the heroism of many Bulgarians of every walk of life, up to and including the King and the Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.In 1999, Abraham Foxman, the National Director of the Anti Defamation League flew with a delegation to Sofia to meet the Bulgarian Prime Minister. He gave the Prime Minister the first Bulgarian language copy of a remarkable book, "Beyond Hitler's Grasp," written in 1998, by Michael Bar Zohar, a professor at Emory University. (A Bulgarian Jew who had immigrated to Israel and then to the USA.)This book documents the rescue effort in detail. The ADL paid for and shipped 30,000 copies to Bulgaria, so that the population could partake in the joy of learning about this heroic facet of their history. This story is clearly the last great secret of the Holocaust era.The story was buried by the Bulgarian Communists, until their downfall in 1991. All records were sealed, since they didn't wish to glorify the King, or the Church, or the non Communist Parliamentarians, who at great personal risk stood up to the Germans, and the Bulgarian Jewish Community, 45,000 of whom went to Israel after the War, were busy building new lives, and somehow the story remained untold.
Bulgaria is a small country and at the outset of the War they had 8 million people. They aligned themselves with the Nazis in hopes of recapturing Macedonia from Yugoslavia and Thrace from Greece. Both provinces were stripped from them after W.W.I.In late 1942 the Jews of Selonica were shipped north through Bulgaria, on the way to the death camps, in sealed box cars. The news of this inhumanity was a hot topic of conversation.Then, at the beginning of 1943, the pro-Nazi Bulgarian government was informed that all 50,000 Bulgarian Jews would be departed in March. The Jews had been made to wear yellow stars and were highly visible. As the date for the deportation got closer, the agitation got greater.Forty three ruling party members of Parliament walked out in protest. Newspapers denounced what was about to happen. In addition, the Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Archbishop Kirili, threatened to lie down on the railroad tracks.Finally, King Boris III forbid the deportation. Since Bulgaria was an ally of Germany, and the Germans were stretched militarily, they had to wrestle with the problem of how much pressure they could afford to apply. They decided to pass.
Several points are noteworthy. The Bulgarian Jews were relatively unreligious and did not stand apart from the local populace by virtue of garb, or rites. They were relatively poor by comparison to Jews in other countries, and they lived in integrated neighborhoods.Additionally, Bulgaria had many minorities; Armenians, Turks, Greeks, and Gypsies, in addition to Jews. There was no concept of racism in that culture. The bottom line here is that Bulgarians saw Bulgarian Jews as Bulgarians, and not as Jews. And, being a small country, likeDenmark, where there was a closeness of community, that is often missing in larger countries.So, here was a bright spot that we can point to as example of what should have been.